According to ISO26262, a design should be robust enough to handle the random failures caused by harsh ambient conditions. It has been observed that the cosmic rays and alpha particles can produce enough charge inside a chip to change the state of one or more flip flops or temporary change in the net value. And due to aging, a flip flop may not be able to retain its values for long duration. These failures can be temporary in nature, like bit flipping or permanent because of wearing out of the device. Such failures can lead to a malfunction resulting in a violation of safety goals (damage incurred).
To access the article, click here . Courtesy of EE Times Automotive DesignLine.