Fraunhofer's development of the physical layer is a core technology for future data transmission links and networks based on short- to medium-range twisted-pair cables or comparable media. It answers the questions of how to get raw data over the copper cable, how to start up the link and facilitate the full-speed transmission, and how to manage physical link health during operation. During the course of the physical layer development, the copper cable itself was also investigated. They found it to be a design item within the physical layer that can be tailored to the application at hand. Through a systematic process, they managed to reduce insertion loss while at the same time reducing weight (see  for details).
For example, one could also use the more advanced signal processing of the presented technology and “reduce on the cable side” to decrease weight and/or material usage there. Fraunhofer IIS, with a paradigm shift in the signal processing scheme and a big development step of a hybrid prototype, has opened the door to the next generation of high-speed data transmission. It paves the way to faster, lighter and more efficient data links and networks in automotive applications.
 C. Zerna et. al., „Computer-Aided Optimization of Copper Cables for High-Speed Data Transmission”, ITG-Fachtagung Kabelkommunikationsnetze, Köln 2014
 R. Kraus, “APIX auf der Überholspur”, Elektronik, 1.6.2010
Norbert Weber, Ph.D: is head of the project group optical sensors and communications at the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits, Germany since 1999. Currently his research interests include high-speed circuit design and optical communications.
Conrad Zerna: is working in the project group optical sensors and communications at the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits, Germany since 2008. He has developed several equalizers of different architectures for data transmission speeds ranging from Mbit/s up to 10 Gbit/s and is currently executive project leader for the new physical layer development.